Before and After Wolves
Copied from: http://wolfeducationproject.org/education.html
Great Educational Site!!!
Mexican Grey Wolves
The Mexican grey wolf is one of the
most critically endangered sub-
Concerned with the dwindling population of the Mexican grey wolf, the United States and Mexico combined forces in 1998 and embarked on a reintroduction program to restore them into their former range. Unfortunately, this project has had little success both practically and publicly. The reintroduction effort’s 2008 goal was to have an established and healthy population of 100 wild wolves. But due to illegal poaching, habitat degradation, and unknown losses, there are only an estimated 50 individuals left in the wild.
The future of the Mexican grey wolf remains largely uncertain. The current population of wild wolves is in need of constant monitoring and support, leaving their fate entirely up to the project and the local public. If we work together, and create an awareness of the current crisis surrounding these beautiful creatures, perhaps the future may turn a little brighter.
Mexican grey wolves eat prey very similar to their fellow wolves preferring large ungulates (hoofed creatures). It is common for Mexican grey wolves to prey upon species such as white-tailed deer, mule deer, and elk, as well as smaller creatures of the arid Southwest such as rabbits, mice, and even ground squirrels.
For more information, please visit the
Mexican Wolf Reintroduction Program’s official website here:
Copied from: http://redwolves.com/rwc/index.html
What is a red wolf?
Are red wolves dangerous to people?
Will humans develop tolerance for wolves and other top predators living in
proximity? Can wolves and humans coexist?
Do wolves reduce the number of game animals available for hunters?
Should wolves be legally hunted along with other big game animals?
Should red wolves be managed as an endangered species into the future? Are
the costs worth the benefits?
Should livestock growers be compensated for the loss of valuable domestic
animals due to wolf predation?
Are red wolves really red?
Although there is growing support in North Carolina and elsewhere for wolf restoration, negative attitudes toward top-level predators are among the major challenges to the long-term success of wild red wolf populations. These attitudes range from the view that wolves and other predators are nuisances to the deeply entrenched hostility that many people have historically demonstrated toward wolves. While the ferocious and unrelenting persecution of wolves ended with passage of the Endangered Species Act in 1973, fear and hatred remain despite the evidence that red wolves pose little or no danger to humans.
Some private landholders in northeastern North Carolina object to the presence of wolves on their property. However, depredation on livestock and pets is not a major problem for wildlife managers in the red wolf restoration region. Corporate agriculture (soybeans, cotton, etc.) is big business, but large cattle and sheep operations are virtually non-existent. Losses of chickens and goats on small farms have been minimal over the years, as have been attacks on domestic pets.
Gunshot mortality is a grave concern. Hunting is woven deeply into the regional culture, and the growing popularity of predator hunting may be having an impact on red wolf mortality. Young red wolves resemble coyotes, and in November, when hunting season begins each year, an alarming number of breeders are killed. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Red Wolf Recovery Program and the Red Wolf Coalition cooperate in efforts to teach the public about the value of conserving this rare predator and the habitat it needs to thrive. Two major goals are to work with stakeholders and with the North Carolina Wildlife Resource Commission on red wolf issues. Additionally, plans are underway to build a large. natural-habitat enclosure for a resident group of wolves so that people can see a red wolf and make the essential connection with this critically endangered animal. In 2010, a reward was posted for information leading to the prosecution of individuals who illegally kill endangered red wolves.
Are attitudes changing? David Rabon, Red Wolf Recovery Program Coordinator, has this to say: Local opposition to red wolf restoration remains, although tolerance and even acceptance appear to have increased since the red wolf was first restored to eastern North Carolina in 1987. Some people living in the red wolf recovery area remain concerned for their safety of their families, pets, and livestock. The Red Wolf Recovery Program’s responsibility is to be responsive to the concerns of citizens most affected by the presence of wolves. It’s essential to educate and inform the public about the history and behavior of red wolves, the issues of managing wolves, the presence of coyotes and their interaction with wolves, and the benefits of restoring and conserving red wolves.
Alaska Wolves Background
Copied from: Defenders Site
Please follow the links below for more information!
Alaska is home to the largest remaining population of gray wolves in the United States. Some 7,000 to 11,000 wolves roam the state in habitats as diverse as barren arctic tundra and lush temperate rainforests.
Alaska's wolves, as elsewhere, play an essential role in maintaining healthy prey populations and biodiversity in ecosystems in which they inhabit. They are also vital to the state's tourism economy: People from all over the world come to Alaska for the opportunity to see a wild wolf.
But ironically, at the same time that heroic efforts proceed to restore wolves to portions of their former habitat in the lower 48 states, wolves in Alaska continue to be persecuted.
Because wolf populations in Alaska have never declined to the extent they have in other states, they were never added to the endangered species list. Alaska classifies wolves as both big game animals and furbearers, which means they can be hunted and trapped. Each year, more than 1,000 wolves are trapped or hunted. According to the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, "Most of these harvest totals do not include unreported harvests which may equal or exceed the reported harvest...."
Alaska's Intensive Wolf Management Program
Ignoring the findings of numerous scientific studies that have determined that predators rarely are the sole cause of significant or long-term declines in prey populations, the Alaska legislature, the Board of Game and wolf control supporters continue to advocate for intensive management of not only wolves but brown and black bears. Hunting and trapping methods and seasons for these species have been greatly liberalized across much of the state. And since the winter of 2003/2004, the state has conducted an extensive aerial predator control program employing the use of private hunters and pilots to shoot and kill wolves using airplanes who either shoot the animals directly from the plane or chase the wolves and then landing and shoot them. Both practices are strongly opposed by many because they are considered unsportsmanlike, unethical and nearly impossible to regulate. It also leads to many other violations of hunting regulations such as chasing, herding and harassing wolves.More Information About Alaska's Aerial Gunning Program
Copied from: Defenders Site
Please follow the links below for more information!
Canada hosts the world’s largest wolf population, with more than 50,000 wolves inhabiting its vast landscape. Wolves are heavily hunted and trapped throughout the country, however, and are often killed when they stray from the protection of national and provincial parks. Defenders is working to ensure that Canada’s wolves are conserved and properly managed so that they continue to thrive in the future. Our current efforts are focused on reducing human-wolf conflicts in southwestern Alberta.
In the FieldIn southwestern Alberta, wolves are at increasing risk from habitat loss and lethal conflicts with ranchers. Defenders is collaborating with an innovative group of partners to demonstrate that wolves, people, and livestock can share the same landscape.
Management and Policy
Canada’s wolf population is generally considered stable, and receives no federal protection. Defenders is affecting policy change at the regional level by promoting alternative approaches to wolf management.
100 Wolf Facts - Written by www.wolfology.com
(This is a great site to learn more about wolves! )
1. Genus: Canis; Family: Canidae; Order: Carnivora.
2. There are two wolf species in North America: the gray wolf (Canis lupus) and the red wolf (Canis rufus).
3. There are five recognized subspecies of the gray wolf in North America: arctus, baileyi, lycaon, nubilis and occidentalis.
4. Canis lupus arctus occurs in most of the Canadian Arctic Islands and Greenland; C. l. baileyi, the Mexican wolf, once ranged through northern Mexico and the southwestern U.S.; C. l. lycaon, the eastern timber wolf, is found in southeastern Canada and northeastern U.S.; C. l. nubilis ranged throughout the western U.S., southeastern Alaska and northwestern Canada; C. l. occidentalis occurs in most of Alaska and western Canada.
5. There were once three subspecies of red wolf: Canis rufus floridanus, which ranged from Florida through Alabama and is now extinct; C. r. gregoryi, which ranged throughout the Mississippi Valley region into east Texas; and C. r. rufus, which occurred in east and central Texas.
6. Wolves once had the widest range of any mammal, inhabiting arctic tundra, plains, prairies, deserts, mountains and forests. They were found throughout Europe, Asia, Japan and all of North America except southwest California.
7. The genus Canis also includes the coyote, the domestic dog, the African wild dog, the jackal, and the dingo.
8. The wolf is the largest of the wild canids.
9. Wolves are highly intelligent animals.
10. Wolves range in color from all shades of gray, tan and brown to pure white and solid black. Most wolves of the arctic region are a creamy white color. About 30% of Canadian wolves are black. Black wolves are less frequent in southern regions.
11. The wolf has two types of hair: guard and undercoat. The long guard hairs repel moisture and the undercoat insulates.
12. The wolf sheds its bulky winter coat in sheets (unlike most dogs); females tend to lose their winter coats more slowly than males.
13. A wolf's tail is straight and does not curl like those of many dog breeds.
14. A wolf's hearing is at least 16 times sharper than a human's. Wolves can hear a sound as far as six miles away in the forest and ten miles away in open country.
15. The wolf has excellent peripheral vision and superior night vision. The outer perimeter of the wolf's retina is highly sensitive to movement. However, a wolf's eyes lack a foveal pit that allows for sharp focusing at long distances.
16. Wolves stand on the average about 34" at the shoulder.
17. Gray wolves normally measure between 4.5 and 6 feet from nose to end of tail. (Red wolves are generally somewhat smaller.)
18. Wolves weigh between 40 and 140 pounds, with females generally weighing about 15 pounds less than males. There have been a few documented cases of wolves weighing in at about 175 pounds.
19. A wolf's front feet are larger than its back feet, and a wolf's foreprint varies from 4.5" to 5" long and 3.5" to 4.5" wide. The outer toes point straight ahead (not outward, like those of dogs.)
20. The wolf's sense of smell is 100 times greater than a human's; the wolf possesses as many as 200 million olfactory cells.
21. The wolf has extremely powerful jaws that can generate 1,500 psi of pressure, twice that of a German Shepherd.
22. The wolf has 42 teeth, with six incisors, two canines, eight premolars and four molars in the upper jaw and six incisors, two canines, eight premolars and six molars in the lower jaw.
23. The wolf's front teeth (incisors and canines) are used for puncturing, slashing and clinging.
24. The pointed premolars and molars are useful for tearing and shearing.
25. The carnassial teeth (an upper premolar and lower molar) are designed shear tendons and connective tissue, while the back teeth are useful for cracking bone.
26. The wolf's canine teeth interlock so that the wolf can hang on to struggling prey.
27. The wolf is an apex predator, at the top of the animal world's food chain.
28. The wolf's prey of choice are large ungulates (hoofed mammals), including deer, elk, caribou, moose and musk-ox; the wolf is designed for running, catching and killing large animals.
29. The wolf is an opportunistic hunter and will seek to catch the easiest and most vulnerable animal; it naturally seeks out the sick, the weak, the genetically inferior, the old and the young.
30. The wolf is vulnerable to injury and death from kicking prey.
31. When attacking, wolves seize their prey by nose or rump. A wolf rarely hamstrings its prey. (That they do is one of the most common myths about wolves.)
32. The wolf uses scenting, tracking and chance encounters to locate prey.
33. Wolves have a low hunting success rate -- catching about one out of every ten prey animals pursued. To catch enough food they must hunt often and test many prey animals.
34. A wolf pack eats the equivalent of one deer per week, or one caribou every two weeks.
35. The wolf usually travels at a trot, averaging 5 mph, and can maintain this pace almost for a very long time.
36. A wolf can run at speeds of up to 30-35 mph.
37. A wolf will spend approximately one-third of its time on the move.
38. It is common for a wolf to travel 20 miles a day in search of food.
39. An adult wolf can consume 20 pounds of meat in a feeding.
40. Wolves eat, on average, 5 to 12 pounds of food per day and require 1 to 3 quarts of water a day. A wolf often goes many days without eating.
41. Wolves usually hunt in packs, the basic unit of wolf society. However, single wolves can catch and kill a deer or elk.
42. A pack usually consists of a breeding pair and its offspring from the current and perhaps previous years, and is one of the most cohesive social units in the animal world.
43. A pack usually numbers between four and seven members; the largest documented pack was found in Alaska and numbered 36 individuals. (European packs are generally smaller, averaging three to four members.)
44. The "alpha," or breeding, pair are the dominant members of the pack.
45. The "beta" wolf is the second-ranking member in the hierarchy..
46. The "omega" is the lowest-ranking wolf in the hierarchy.
47. There are two hierarchies in a wolf pack, one for males and one for females.
48. The hierarchy reduces conflict and promotes social order within the pack.
49. Change of rank in a wolf pack is more frequent at the lower end of the hierarchy.
50. Submissive behavior by lower-ranking wolves in a pack plays a key role in maintaining peace.
51. Ritualized aggression is essential to maintaining order and harmony within the pack.
52. Dominant wolves hold their tails high; subservient wolves keep their tails down.
53. Subservient wolves will greet a dominant wolf by licking or nipping its muzzle. Such behavior is called "active submission".
54. A subservient wolf lying on the ground and exposing its belly in the presence of a dominant wolf is engaged in "passive submission".
55. The bond between pack members is so close that observers have recorded that the death of one engenders an evident sense of loss among the survivors.
56. Wolf packs are territorial and may attack other wolves that intrude into their territory.
57. Wolf pack territories range from 20 to 1,000 square miles, with the larger territories found in arctic regions. Territory size is determined by several factors, prey density among them.
58. A wolf pack is often on the move within its territory, covering distances of 20-100 miles a day.
59. It is common for wolves to be on the move from 8 to 10 hours in every 24-hour period.
60. "Dispersers" are wolves who leave a pack; these lone wolves will sometimes find a mate and start a new pack.
61. Dispersing wolves may travel long distances. Dispersals of 400 to 500 miles are not unheard of; the longest known dispersal is 829 miles by a Canadian wolf.
62. Lone wolves have no established territory and rarely howl or scent-mark.
63. Wolves become sexually mature at approximately 22 months of age.
64. The wolf mating season in North America occurs only once a year, in February or March, when the female comes into estrus for three weeks.
65. Sometimes other pack members besides the alpha pair will mate. Among tundra wolves, subordinate females often become pregnant. In most such cases the alpha male is the father of all the pups.
66. Multiple pack litters usually occur as a survival response, for instance after severe winters and when population numbers have declined.
67. The wolf's gestation period is 63 days.
68. Wolf pups are born in April or May.
69. The average litter size for the wolf is four to seven pups, and can be as large as 14 pups.
70. The average weight of a newborn pup is one pound.
71. A wolf pup's eyes will open in 10-13 days.
72. At three weeks a wolf pup will be able to hear.
73. Wolf pups are born with blue eyes, which will change to yellow-gold by the time the pups are 8-16 weeks old.
74. At four weeks the pups will venture out of the den.
75. When they leave the den, wolf pups become the responsibility of the entire pack and are treated with affection by all members. The pack's adults participate in training the pups.
76. A wolf den is often near a river or lake so the mother wolf does not have to go far to get water. Dens are located in deep riverbanks, rock outcrops, a hollow log, or under upturned roots.
77. Den entrances are about 20-28" wide and 15-20" high. There may be more than one entrance. The birthing chamber is located at the end of a tunnel that could be as long as 15 feet.
78. The mother wolf stays with her pups and will not leave the den except to eat the food other pack members leave outside for her.
79. When adult wolves return from a hunt, the pups lick their mouths to encourage them to regurgitate undigested meat which the pups then eat.
80. When the pups are 8-10 weeks old the pack -- pups included -- moves to a "rendezvous site" some distance from the den. This site is normally an area of about 1,200 square yards.
81. Wolf pups begin to accompany adults on hunting forays around the age of three months and begin actively hunting at 7-8 months of age.
82. The mortality rate for wolf pups in the wild is at least 50%. Disease, malnutrition and predation by cougars, bears and humans are the main causes of death.
83. Wolves have a sophisticated communication system that employs scent marks, vocalizations, posturing, facial expressions and rituals.
84. Wolves use facial expressions to display aggression, fear, dominance and submission.
85. Wolves not only howl but also bark, yap, whine and growl.
86. Wolves howl to advertise their presence or position, to greet one another, to rally the pack and to attract a mate.
87.Wolf howls may be audible to the human ear up to ten miles away in good weather conditions.
88. While howling, wolves change pitch to achieve harmonic as well as discordant effects.
89. Wolves do not howl at the moon.
90. Many wild wolves die before they reach five years of age. Very few exceed nine years of age. In captivity, wolves can live up to 16 years.
91. Wolves do not make good pets; they cannot be trained or housebroken, and solitary wolves can become stressed and neurotic.
92. There are approximately 300,000 wolf-hybrids in the United States. They can occasionally be more aggressive than pure wolves and more unpredictable than domestic dogs.
93. The only true enemy of the wolf is man. Studies in Canada, Italy and the United States show that from 60-90% of wolf mortality has been through human causes.
94. It is estimated that two million wolves were killed in a war of extermination waged against the species in the United States, the majority between 1850 and 1910.
95. The wolf was extinct in most of Europe by 1900. The last wolf in Denmark was killed in 1772, Scotland's last wolf was killed in 1848. Wolves survived in Poland, Romania, the former Yugoslavia, northern Greece, northern Spain and the mountainous central region of Italy. A few wolves have recently returned to Scandinavia, France and Germany.
96. Wolves can be found in Turkey, Iran, Israel (where they are fully protected), Saudi Arabia, India, Mongolia, China and Russia.
97. There are 50,000 wolves in Canada, though they are no longer found in New Brunswick, Newfoundland or Nova Scotia. They are hunted as a game species.
98. There are 5,000-7,000 wolves in Alaska, where they are still hunted except in parks and reserves.
99. There has been only one documented cause of healthy wolves killing a human in North America. That was committed by captive wolves in a private wildlife sanctuary in Canada.
100. Under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, the gray wolf is listed as endangered in all of the Lower 48 states except Minnesota, where it is listed as threatened. The red wolf is listed as endangered.
My What Big Teeth You Have Wacipi!
Wacipi is one of our female wolves.
"The wolf has very strong
jaws. They have a "crushing pressure of perhaps 1,500 (lbs/square inch) compared
to 740 (lbs/square inch) for a German Shepherd.
This is how wolves use their teeth in the wild. Unfortunately our wolves do not get to hunt, they are fed by us. It is sad that they cannot be free but as a rescue we give them the best life we can. They are happy, healthy and LOVED
Wrightwood Historical Society
Lecture on Wolves
November 7, 2008
The Wrightwood Historical Society contacted Wolf Mountain Sanctuary asked us to come up and give a lecture on wolves.
Tonya Littlewolf and Danna Cruzan spoke to a packed house about wolves in general. We spoke about our wolves at the sanctuary, about wolves in the wild and about how wolves fit into our eco system and why they are an intricate part of it and very necessary.
Tonya and Stephanie brought Waylon, the wolf dog from the sanctuary to attend this event. He is 16 years old but loves to travel and meet interested people. He enjoyed walking around the area next to the museum before the event.
Throughout the lecture there were many questions from a very interested audience and we answered all of them.
This was a great opportunity for WMS to get the word out about our sanctuary and about the plight of wolves in the wild.
Thank you Wrightwood Historical Society for this great opportunity, we hope to come back soon.
We received $200 in donations in our donation jar, THANK YOU!
Updated June 18, 2011
Wolf Mountain Sanctuary is a 501(c)(3) non-profit educational organization dedicated
to the preservation, protection and proper management of wolves in the wild and in captivity.
Our purpose and ultimate goal is to save these great noble animals from extinction.
Wolf Mountain Sanctuary
Post Office Box 385
Lucerne Valley, CA 92356
Copyright ©1980-2011 Wolf Mountain Sanctuary, All rights reserved.